Look up how in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. How”, a song by The Cranberries from the Everybody Else Is Doing It, So Why Bitcoin mining ubuntu 12 04 nvidia graphics’t We? This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title How.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. The word mining originates in the context of the gold analogy for crypto currencies. Gold or precious metals are scarce, so are digital tokens, and the only way to increase the total volume is through mining. Ethereum, like all blockchain technologies, uses an incentive-driven model of security. Consensus is based on choosing the block with the highest total difficulty.
Miners produce blocks which the others check for validity. The Ethereum blockchain is in many ways similar to the Bitcoin blockchain, although it does have some differences. As dictated by the protocol, the difficulty dynamically adjusts in such a way that on average one block is produced by the entire network every 15 seconds. We say that the network produces a blockchain with a 15 second block time.
Ethash PoW is memory hard, making it ASIC resistant. Memory hardness is achieved with a proof of work algorithm that requires choosing subsets of a fixed resource dependent on the nonce and block header. As a special case, when you start up your node from scratch, mining will only start once the DAG is built for the current epoch. All the gas consumed by the execution of all the transactions in the block submitted by the winning miner is paid by the senders of each transaction. The gas cost incurred is credited to the miner’s account as part of the consensus protocol.
Over time, it is expected these will dwarf the static block reward. A maximum of 2 uncles are allowed per block. Mining success depends on the set block difficulty. Block difficulty dynamically adjusts each block in order to regulate the network hashing power to produce a 12 second blocktime. Your chances of finding a block therefore follows from your hashrate relative to difficulty. The DAG takes a long time to generate. If clients only generate it on demand, you may see a long wait at each epoch transition before the first block of the new epoch is found.